References EDS4404 Assignment 2

Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership [AITSL]. (2014). Australian Professional Standards for Teachers: Standard Six: Professional Development. Retrieved 21 October 2015 from: http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-standards-for-teachers/standards/list?&s=6.

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA]. (2015a). Year 7: History. Retrieved 14 October 2015 from: http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/humanities-and-social-sciences/history/curriculum/f-10?layout=1#level7.

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA]. (2015b). Year 6: History. Retrieved 15 October 2015 from: http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/humanities-and-social-sciences/history/curriculum/f-10?layout=1#level6.

Burack, J. (2015). Interpreting Political Cartoons in the History Classroom. TeachingHistory.org. Retrieved 12 October 2015 from: http://teachinghistory.org/teaching-materials/teaching-guides/21733.

Department of Education, Training and Employment [DETE]. (2015). Developing our Workforce Capability. Retrieved 19 October 2015 from: http://education.qld.gov.au/staff/development/.

Department of Education, Training and Employment [DETE]. (2013). Reflect Ethical Decision Making Model. Retrieved 19 October 2015 from: http://education.qld.gov.au/corporate/codeofconduct/pdfs/reflectedm.pdf.

Ladd-Taylor, M., Igra, I., Seidman, R. (2013). How to Analyse a Primary Source. Carleton College. Retrieved 12 October 2015 from: https://apps.carleton.edu/curricular/history/resources/study/primary/.

Library of Congress. (2015). Using Primary Sources. Retrieved 12 October 2015 from: http://www.loc.gov/teachers/usingprimarysources/.

Maiden, B. & Perry, B. (2011). Dealing with Free-Riders in Assessed Group Work: Results from a Study at a UK University. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. 36(4). Pp. 451-464.

Mellor, A. (2009). Group Work Assessment: Benefits, Problems and Implications for Good Practice. Northumbria University. Retrieved 21 October 2015 from: https://www.northumbria.ac.uk/static/5007/arpdf/academy/redguide53.pdf.

Peterson, E.R. (2008). Secondary School Students’ Conceptions of Assessment and Feedback. Learning and Instruction. 18(3). Pp. 238-250.

Queensland College of Teachers [QCT]. (2008). Code of Ethics for Teachers in Queensland. Retrieved 19 October 2015 from: https://www.qct.edu.au/PDF/PCU/CodeOfEthicsPoster20081215.pdf.

Tasmanian Institute of Learning & Teaching [TIOLT]. (2014). Moderating Teacher Judgements. University of Tasmania. Retrieved 15 October 2015 from: http://www.teaching-learning.utas.edu.au/assessment/moderating-teacher-judgments.

Tyler, C.E. (2014). Today’s Challenges and Dilemmas for Ethical School Leaders. E-Leader Bangkok. Retrieved 19 October 2015 from: http://www.g-casa.com/conferences/bangkok14/papers/Tyler.pdf.

Task 10: Identifying professional development for History teachers.

Professional development is an important and necessary element in the career of any educator. Educators are constantly challenged to learn new skills, knowledge and approaches to learning in order to deliver a quality education to their students (DETE, 2015). AITSL incorporates professional development into the Professional Standards for Teachers under standard six which details that teachers need to identify and plan their professional development needs, engage in professional development and with colleagues to improve practice and applying the professional development to improve student learning (AITSL, 2014). This demonstrates how essential professional development is in the teaching profession as these standards are required to be demonstrated by teachers in order to complete or keep their teacher registration.

Teachers need to maintain professional development to continue to ensure that the content knowledge they possess and the teaching strategies they employ during their lessons are effective in engaging and educating students. This process has been made easier by the advent of technology. Technology has drastically changed the way students conduct their work, how teachers present their classes and also how teachers can engage in professional development.

One such way a teacher can engage in professional development is through the use of podcasts. Podcasts are a convenient, free and easy way for teachers to engage in professional development and can cover topics that will help to increase a teacher’s content knowledge or to assist them in keeping abreast of developments in pedagogy and teaching and learning practices. Podcasts such as TED Talks and the BBCs ‘A history of the World in 100 Objects’ are not only useful tools for teacher engagement in professional development but are also great tools for use in class.

There are also many different associations that can assist teachers with their professional development. The Queensland History teachers’ Association offers opportunities for teachers to attend conferences, contains links to the Australian Curriculum, eJournals, and resources to assist teachers both in their professional development and in their teaching.

The internet also offers opportunities for teachers to source professional development. The ASCD website contains links to books and publications and conferences that teachers can access for a fee. Although the website is American, the resources and courses can be accessed online which provides another avenue that teachers can use to engage with professional development.

Teachers can ensure that they are providing the absolute best quality education for their students by attending and engaging with professional development. Learning is a life-long process and with new research constantly bringing about new teaching techniques and strategies, professional development is the best way for teachers to stay abreast of these new developments.

Task 9: Reflecting on personal and professional ethics in History.

As teachers, it is part of our role to make ethical decisions in regards to students’ wellbeing and also their academic results. This means that we need to ensure that student academic achievement and improvement increases no matter what the circumstances (Tyler, 2014). In order to make ethical decisions in situations where student achievement can be affected through personal hardships or problems, the Queensland Government and the Queensland College of Teachers have created a Code of Ethics which details six values that underpin the teaching profession: integrity, dignity, responsibility, respect, justice and care (QCT, 2008). These values can assist teachers in making ethical and fair decisions when a student’s grade are threatened due to circumstances out of their control.

In the case of the students’ group work assignment, the first course of action that should be taken is to ascertain why the absent student had failed to submit any completed work. A simple phone call to the absent student can help to ascertain this. If the issue was simply that the student had completed the work but could not submit it due to the parent’s illness, then an extension of one day shall be granted to the absent student to enable them to submit their assignment, even if it is via email. If the parent’s illness had no bearing on the completion of the student’s work, then, after individually consulting the remaining members of the group as to the absent student’s involvement and commitment, the student will be awarded a mark relative to this. Mellor (2009) & Maiden & Perry (2011) state that by using individual critical reports, or questionnaires, where students can reflect, in confidence, on their experiences during the process of completing the group work; including their perceptions of the effort and commitment of the other members. This method is congruent with the 80/20 grading split suggested by Maiden & Perry (2011), where the criteria of individual contribution to group work is graded by the other contributing members; while the teacher grades the remaining criteria.

Through the application of literature, including the code of ethics (QCAA, 2015) and the REFLECT ethical decision making model designed by the Department of Education and Training (2013) the courses of action mentioned above are justified. The code of ethics (QCAA, 2015) states that teachers can show dignity by treating students equitably and by showing care and compassion. By ascertaining the reasons why the absent student had not submitted any work prior to making a final judgement on grades the teacher can show care and compassion to the student if the non-submission was through no fault of their own. The teacher can also demonstrate care in using the above course of action.

The teacher can also demonstrate the value of justice towards the contributing students. This is also done by ascertaining the reasons behind the student’s non-submission. If the student just simply did not submit their portion of the work, and the illness of the parent had no bearing on the non-submission, then the student will receive a lower grade. This demonstrates that the teacher is being fair and reasonable in regards to the other participating students.

By adhering to the code of ethics a teacher can ensure that they make ethical judgements about certain situations where a student’s well-being or achievement is at stake.

Task 8: Reflecting on the process of marking.

Moderation is an important, and expected, process in the work of any teacher. Moderation ensures that consistent judgements about standards are being made among all of the teachers of that particular subject (Tasmanian Institute of Learning & Teaching, 2014). The moderation process is important as it ensures that when a student is awarded a certain result, the same result will be awarded, regardless of who marks the work (TIOLT, 2014).  Moderation encourages teachers to become objective participants in the marking process and promotes fairness and consistency across a cohort.

This moderation process was conducted with peers to review the marking of a Year Seven assessment piece about religion in Ancient Greece. Collaboration provided an excellent opportunity to see areas in which we agreed, and if there were any criteria that required discussion and/or adjustment.

Initially, I had awarded the assessment a grade of B plus, which, in my opinion gave a fair award for a very well written piece. The factors that negatively impacted the mark were sentence structure, a limited range of resources and the inconsistent use of the correct historical terms.

During the collaboration, it was discussed how the mark for the lack of range with the resources used was harsh. Although the Year Seven historical skills state that students only need to identify and locate relevant sources by using ICT or other methods (ACARA, 2015a). Based upon this evidence, it was decided that the student did satisfy the requirements in regards to a range of sources and this portion of the mark needed to be adjusted to fully reflect this new adjustment. This was decided based on the evidence that the student had used ICT to effectively identify and locate relevant sources, and that these sources were incorporated smoothly and efficiently into the assessment piece.

The rest of my grading was moderated and deemed to be at a fair and just level, compared to how other participants in the moderating group had graded their assessment pieces. The grades with regard to the sentence structure and the inconsistency with historical terms were deemed to be fair, as most of the moderating group also noticed this. The deviation in regards to the grade for the sources used could be owing to a lack of experience with Year Seven students and their abilities, as well as making judgements about their work. This is something I will address throughout next year by engaging with Year Seven students and their work as much as possible during practicums.

Task 7: Feedback and reporting on student work in history.

Task 7 requires the marking of a Year Seven case study assessment piece about Ancient Greece and the religion practised by its people. Through the use of both supporting literature and the curriculum documents provided by ACARA, this case study will be marked and awarded a grade that reflects the areas the student’s understanding. Feedback will be provided to the student in order to assist them in improving skills for future assessment.

Effective feedback can improve learning at both a cognitive and behavioural level (Peterson & Irving, 2008). There is a variety of feedback which can be offered to students: outcome feedback, corrective feedback and process feedback (Peterson & Irving, 2008).  Process feedback is provided to students throughout the learning process as an ongoing tool to assist and encourage. Outcome and corrective feedback, however, are generally associated with summative assessments (Peterson & Irving, 2008), and both are given to the students after the marking process is complete.

The mark awarded for the submitted piece of assessment is a B plus. This mark was awarded independent of other students’ abilities or the context of the classroom the student was involved in, and represents the ability level that the student displayed in the task. The feedback given for the result justifies why the particular grade was awarded. Although the student completed some areas of the assessment well, other aspects of the assessment were inconsistent or not completed to a high enough standard to warrant a higher mark.

The cohesion of information was of a high standard; the student transitioned and connected the ideas in their essay well. However, their vocabulary and sentence structure were not as effective.  Also, their summarising paragraph, rather than concluding previous information, provided new information to the essay. This affected the student’s final mark.

The inquiry question developed by the student was conducive for the development of sub questions about the past to inform historical inquiry (ACARA, 2015).  The student implemented the use of historical terms and concepts, but the execution and consistency of these terms and concepts was lacking. This is evidenced by the use of BCE in addition to BC and the incorrect capitalization of proper nouns, such as Gods. This adversely affected the outcome of the communication criteria detailed on the task rubric.

The criteria also mentions that students need to select a range of sources to utilize in the discussion. This student identified and selected multiple sources; however, the range of those sources was limited as most of their sources were websites. This can degrade the quality of information gathered.

The feedback contained information on the student’s progress and how they can proceed from this task into future tasks (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). Rather than simply providing a grade, effective feedback is provided to ensure the student understands the areas of the task in which they experienced success, as well as the areas which require improvement.

Task 6: A resource to support high quality source selection.

Analysing sources is one of the most important tasks any historian, whether student or professional, can undertake while studying history (Ladd-Taylor, Igra & Seidman, 2013). The most commonly analysed source is a primary source, which are original documents or objects that were created during a particular period (Library of Congress, 2015).

Although the expectations in variety and difficulty vary throughout high school, it is a requirement that students engage with these primary sources while completing their assessment.

Students can struggle with analysing sources and in particular image sources. One such image source are cartoons. Cartoons are an artist’s impression of a particular historical event or person. When studying these sources many students can struggle to see past the face value of the source and often get caught in certain pitfalls that inhibit a thorough analysis. Burack (2015) describes these pitfalls as:

  1. The student does not realise that the source is simply the opinion of the creator, who appeals to emotions and uses other techniques to try to persuade the viewer to accept their opinion on the matter. This means that these sources cannot be treated as historical evidence of the way things were or how people felt about the way things were.
  2. The student can be trapped into trying to decide if the cartoon was right or wrong, although detecting bias should be an important part of the analysis process.
  3. Students can distrust the source and not use it as historical evidence due to the fact that it is a biased expression. Cartoons can provide evidence in a vivid, even entertaining way.

Because of these pitfalls, I have created a resource that will assist the student in learning how to conduct an historical inquiry. The resource will assist learning by providing guidelines for analysing cartoons. Cartoons provide an insight into the mood, cultural assumptions and attitudes of the public of the time and therefore provide a useful window from which students can view these insights (Burack, 2015).

I have designed the guide in such a way that the students can simply work their way through the prompting questions. By doing this the student can achieve the most thorough analysis of the cartoon. The prompting questions are written in such a way as the student needs to engage in critical thinking in order to ascertain what the question is asking.

By answering the questions posed in the artefact, students will be able to conduct a detailed analysis of the cartoon and the subject content that it contains. By combining the analysis of the cartoon with their already existing content knowledge, students will be able to piece together the subject matter of the cartoon and make informed decisions about its reliability and accuracy.

To view my resource, please follow the link below:

http://prezi.com/3kbzcybhusx4/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy

Reference List Tasks 1 – 5

References:

The Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2015a). Glossary Entry for: Historical Inquiry. Retrieved 31 August 2015 from: http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Glossary/Index?a=H&t=Historical+inquiry.

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2015b). History Overview.  Retrieved 31 August 2015 from: http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/humanities-and-social-sciences/history/aims.

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2015c). Humanities and Social Sciences Overview. Retrieved 27 August 2015 from: http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/humanities-and-social-sciences/introduction.

Chanock, K. (2008). Towards Inclusive Teaching and Learning in Humanities: alternatives to writing. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education. 3. Pp 19-32.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence. Education Policy Analysis Archives. 8(1). Pp 1-44.

Ferrero, D.J. (2011). The Humanities: Why such a Hard Sell? Educational Leadership. 68(6). Pp. 22-26.

Hume, K. (2008). Start Where They Are: Differentiating for Success with the Young Adolescent. Toronto: Pearson Education.

Ing, M., Huang, P., LaCombe, N., Martinez, Y., Haberer, E.D. (2011). Identifying a Solar Cell Misconception Held by Middle School Students. University of Wisconsin-Stout. Retrieved 28 August 2015 from: http://rube.asq.org/edu/2011/06/engineering/a-solar-cell-misconception-held-by-middle-schol-students.pdf.

James Cook University. (2015). Visual, Auditory and Kinaesthetic (VAK) learning style model. Retrieved 02 September 2015 from: http://www.jcu.edu.au/wiledpack/modules/fsl/JCU_090460.html.

Kinaesthetic Learning Strategies. (n.d.) Kinaesthetic Learning Strategies for Various Subjects. Retrieved 02 September 2015 from: http://www.kinestheticlearningstrategies.com/kinesthetic-learning-strategies-for-various-subjects/.

Lucariello, J., Naff, D. (n.d.). How Do I Get My Students Over Their Alternative Conceptions (Misconceptions) for Learning? American Psychological Association. Retrieved 28 August 2015 from: http://www.apa.org/education/k12/misconceptions.aspx.

Mexal, S.J. (2013). CSUF: The Humanities Misconception. Retrieved 28 August 2015 from: http://www.academia.edu/4627329/The_Humanities_Misconception.

National Occupational Health and safety Commission. (1988). Asbestos: Guide to the Control of Asbestos Hazards in Buildings and Structures. Retrieved 01 September 2015 from: http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/SWA/about/Publications/Documents/92/Guide_ControlOfAsbestosHazards_BuildingsAndStructures_NOHSC3002-1988_ArchivePDF.pdf.

NSW Department of Education and Training. (2008). Safety in the Classroom. Retrieved 31 August 2015 from: http://www.rydalmeree-p.schools.nsw.edu.au/documents/21615261/21623437/Safety%20in%20the%20Classroom.pdf.

Stearns, P.N. (1998). Why Study History? American Historical Association. Retrieved 28 August 2015 from: https://www.historians.org/about-aha-and-membership/aha-history-and-archives/archives/why-study-history-(1998).

Queensland Curriculum and Assessment Authority. (2004). Ancient History Senior Syllabus. Retrieved 31 August 2015 from: https://www.qcaa.qld.edu.au/downloads/senior/snr_anc_history_04_syll.pdf